Recently, Jerry Clark published the first of three volumes titled "UFOs in the 1980s," an invaluable research tool containing a host of information on the who, where and what of UFOlogy. With his kind permission and the kind permission of Apogee Publishing Company, we are reprinting an article taken from that book -- Extraterrestrial Biological Entity. In this article, Jerry culls all of the past history and controversy surrounding the MJ-12 controversy and other related material that has spewed forth from the extreme side of UFOlogy representing the ETH such as Lear, Cooper and others. Although this might be considered by some to be "old news," Jerry's chronology of events shed a different light on the players that have made up this compendium of scenarios -- aliens eating humans, genetic experimentation and the gamut of sensationalistic information that drove Paul Bennewitz to an NBD at the kind hands of admitted-disinformant, William L. Moore.
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UFOs in the 1980s
(C) 1990 by Apogee Books and Jerome Clark
Pages 85 - 109
EXTRATERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL ENTITIES
Perhaps the strangest and most convoluted UFO story of the 1980s concerns allegations from various sources, some of them individuals connected with military and intelligence agencies, that the U.S. government not only has communicated with but has an ongoing relationship with what are known officially as "extraterrestrial biological entities," or EBEs.
The Emenegger/Sandler Saga: The story begins in 1973, when Robert Emenegger and Alan Sandler, two well-connected Los Angeles businessmen, were invited to Norton Air Force Base in California to discuss a possible documentary film on advanced research projects. Two military officials, one the base's head of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations, the other, the audio- visual director Paul Shartle, discussed a number of projects. One of them involved UFOs. This one sounded the most interesting and plans were launched to go ahead with a film on the subject.
Emenegger and Sandler were told of a film taken at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, in May 1971. In October 1988, in a national television broadcast, Shartle would declare that he had seen the 16mm film showing "three disc-shaped craft. One of the craft landed and two of them went away." A door opened on the landed vehicle and three beings emerged. Shartle said, "They were human- size. They had an odd, gray complexion and a pronounced nose. They wore tightfitting jump suits, [and] thin headdresses that appeared to be communication devices, and in their hands they held a 'translator.' A Holloman base commander and other Air Force officers went out to meet them" (Howe, 1989).
Emenegger was led to believe he would be given the film for use in his documentary. He was even taken to Norton and shown the landing site and the building in which the spaceship had been stored and others (Buildings 383 and 1382) in which meetings between Air Force personnel and the aliens had been conducted over the next several days. According to his sources, the landing had taken place at 6 a.m. The extraterrestrials were "doctors, professional types." Their eyes had vertical slits like a cat's and their mouths were thin and slitlike, with no chins." All that Emenegger was told of what occurred in the meetings was a single stray "fact": that the military people said they were monitoring signals from an alien group with which they were unfamiliar, and did their ET guests know anything about them? The ETs said no.
Emenegger's military sources said he would be given 3200 feet of film taken of the landing. At the last minute, however, permission was withdrawn, although Emenegger and Sandler were encouraged to describe the Holloman episode as something hypothetical, something that could happen or might happen in the future. Emenegger went to Wright-Patterson AFB, where Project Blue Book had been located until its closing in 1969, to ask Col. George Weinbrenner one of his military contacts, what had happened. According to Emenegger's account, the exchange took place in Weinbrenner's office. The colonel stood up, walked to a chalkboard and complained in a loud voice, "That damn MIG 25! Here we're so public with everything we have. But the Soviets have all kinds of things we don't know about. We need to know more about the MIG 25!" Moving to a bookshelf and continuing his monologue about the Russian jet fighter, he handed Emenegger a copy of J. Allen Hynek's The UFO Experience (1972), with the author's signature and dedication to Weinbrenner. "It was like a scene from a Kafka play," Emenegger would recall , inferring from the colonel's odd behavior that he was confirming the reality of the film while making sure that no one overhearing the conversation realized that was what he was doing.
The documentary film UFO's Past, Present & Future (Sandler Institutional Films, Inc.) was released in 1974 along with a paperback book of the same title. The Holloman incident is recounted in three pages (127-29) of the book's "Future" section. Elsewhere, in a section of photos and illustrations, is an artist's conception of what one of the Holloman entities looked like, though it, along with other alien figures, is described only as being "based on eyewitness descriptions" (Emenegger, 1974). Emenegger's association with the military and intelligence he had met while doing the film would continue for years. At one point in the late 1980s his sources told him that He was about to be invited to film an interview with a live extraterrestrial in a Southwestern state, he says, but nothing came of it.
The Suffern Story: On October 7, 1975, a 27-year old carpenter, Robert Suffern, of Bracebridge, Ontario, got a call from his sister who had seen a "fiery glow" near his barn and concluded it was on fire. Suffern drove to the spot and, after determining that there was no problem, got back on the road. There, he would testify, he encountered a large disc-shaped object resting in his path. "I was scared," he said. "It was right there in front of me with no lights and no sign of life." But even before his car could come to a complete stop, the object abruptly ascended out of sight. Suffern turned his car around and decided to head home rather than to his sister's place, his original intended destination. At that point a small figure wearing a helmet and a silver-gray suit stepped in front of the car, causing Suffern to hit the brakes and skid to a stop. The figure ran into a field. Then, according to Suffern, "when he got to the fence, he put his hands on a post and went over it with no effort at all. It was like he was weightless" (UFOIL, n.d.).
Within two days Suffern's report was on the wire services, and Suffern was besieged by UFO investigators, journalists, curiosity-seekers, and others. Suffern, who made no effort to exploit his story and gave every appearance of believing what he was saying, soon tired of discussing it. A year later, however, Suffern and his wife told a Canadian investigator that a month after the encounter, they were informed that some high-ranking officials wished to speak with them. Around this time, so they claimed, they were given thorough examinations by military doctors. After that an appointment was set up for December 12 and on that day an Ontario Provincial Police cruiser arrived with three military officers, one Canadian, two American. They were carrying books and other documents. In the long conversation that followed, the officers apologized for the UFO landing, claiming it was a "mistake" caused by the malfunctioning of an extraterrestrial spaceship.
The officers produced close-up pictures of UFOs, claiming that the U.S. and Canadian governments had intimate knowledge of aliens since 1943 and were cooperating with them. The officers even knew the exact dates and times of two previous but unreported UFO sightings on the Suffern property. The Sufferns said the officers had answered all their questions fully and frankly, but they would not elaborate on what they were told. Reinterviewed about the matter some months later, the couple stuck by their story but added few further details.
The investigator, Harry Tokarz, would remark, "Robert Suffern strikes one as an individual who carefully measures his thoughts. His sincerity comes through clearly as he slowly relates his concepts and ideas. His wife, a home-bred country girl, is quick to air her views and state unequivocally what she believes to be fact" (CUFORN, 1983).
EBEs in South Dakota: On February 9, 1978, a curious document--an apparent carbon copy of an official U.S. Air Force incident report-arrived at the office of the National Enquirer in Lantana, Florida. Accompanying the document was an unsigned letter dated "29 Jan." It read: "The incident stated in the attached report actually occurred. The Air Force appointed a special team of individuals to investigate the incident. I was one of those individuals. I am still on active duty and so I cannot state my name at this time. It is not that I do not trust the Enquirer (I sure [sic] you would treat my name with [sic] confidence but I do not trust others.) The incident which occurred on 16 Nov. 77, was classified top secret on 2 Dec 77. At that time I obtained a copy of the original report. I thought at that time that the Air Force would probably hush the whole thing up, and they did. The Air Force ordered the silence on 1 Dec 77, after which, the report was classified. There were 16 pictures taken at the scene. I do not have access to the pictures at this time" (Pratt, 1984).
The report, stamped FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY, purported to be from the commander of the 44th Missile Security Squadron at Ellsworth AFB near Rapid City, South Dakota. The incident was described as a "Helping Hand (security violation)/Covered Wagon (security violation) at Lima 9 (68th SMSq Area), 7 miles SW of Nisland, SD, at 2100 hours on 16 Nov. 77." The recipient of the report was identified as "Paul D. Hinzman, SSgt, USAF, Comm/Plotter, Wing Security Control." Two security men, Airmen 1st Class Kenneth Jenkins and Wayne E. Raeke, experienced and reported the incident, which was investigated by Capt. Larry D. Stokes and TSgt. Robert E. Stewart.
The document told an incredible story. At 10:59 on the evening of November 16 an alarm sounded from the Lima Nine missile site. Jenkins and Raeke, at tHe Lima Launch Control Facility 35 miles away, were dispatched to the scene. On their arrival Raeke set out to check the rear fence line. There he spotted a helmeted figure in a glowing green metallic suit. The figure pointed a weapon at Raeke's rifle and caused it to disintegrate, burning Raeke's hands and arms in the process. Raeke summoned Jenkins, who carried his companion back to their Security Alert Team vehicle. When Jenkins went to the rear fence line, he saw two similarly-garbed figures. He ordered them to halt, but when they ignored his command, he opened fire. His bullets struck one in the shoulder and the other in the helmet. The figures ran over a hill and were briefly lost to view. Jenkins pursued them and when he next saw them, they were entering a 20-foot-in-diameter saucer-shaped object, which shot away over the Horizon.
As Raeke was air-evacuated from the scene, investigators discovered that the missile's nuclear components had been stolen.
Enquirer reporters suspected a hoax but when they called Rapid City and Ellsworth to check on the names, they were surprised to learn that such persons did exist. Moreover, all were on active duty. The Enquirer launched an investigation, sending several reporters to Rapid City. Over the course of the next few days they found that although the individuals were real, the document inaccurately listed their job titles, the geography of the alleged incident was wrong (there was no nearby hill over which intruders could have run), Raeke had suffered no injuries, he and Jenkins did not even know each other, and no one (including Rapid City civilian residents and area ranchers) had heard anything about such an encounter. As one of the reporters, Bob Pratt, wrote in a subsequent account, "We found more than 20 discrepancies or errors in the report -wrong names, numbers, occupations, physical layouts and so on. Had the Security Option alert mentioned in the report taken place, it would have involved all security personnel at the base and everyone at the base and in Rapid City (Population 45,000 plus) would have known about it."
The Bennewitz Affair: In the late 1970s Paul Bennewitz, an Albuquerque businessman trained as a physicist, became convinced that he was monitoring electromagnetic signals which extraterrestrials were using to control persons they had abducted. Bennewitz tried to decode these signals and believed he was succeeding. At the same time he began to see what he thought were UFOs maneuvering around the Manzano Nuclear Weapons Storage Facility and the Coyote Canyon test area, located near Kirtland AFB, and he filmed them.
Bennewitz reported all this to the Tucson-based Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO), whose directors were unimpressed, judging Bennewitz to be deluded. But at Kirtland, Bennewitz's claims, or at least some of them, were being taken more seriously. On October 24, 1980, Bennewitz contacted Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) agent Sgt. Richard Doty (whose previous tour of duty had been at Ellsworth) after being referred to him by Maj. Ernest Edwards, head of base security, and related that he had evidence that something potentially threatening was going on in the Manzano Weapons Storage Area. A "Multipurpose Internal OSI Form," signed by Maj. Thomas A. Cseh (Commander of the Base Investigative Detachment), dated October 28, 1980, and subsequently released under the Freedom of Information Act, states:
"On 26 Oct 80, SA [Special Agent] Doty, with the assistance of JERRY MILLER, GS-15, Chief, Scientific Advisor for Air Force Test and Evaluation Center, KAFB , interviewed Dr. BENNEWITZ at his home in the Four Hills section of Albuquerque, which is adjacent to the northern boundary of Manzano Base. (NOTE: MILLER is a former Project Blue Book USAF Investigator who was assigned to Wright-Patterson AFB (W-PAFB), OH, with FTD [Foreign Technology Division]. Mr. MILLER is one of the most knowledgeable and impartial investigators of Aerial Objects in the southwest.) Dr. BENNEWITZ has been conducting independent research into Aerial Phenomena for the last 15 months. Dr. BENNEWITZ also produced several electronic recording tapes, allegedly showing high periods of electrical magnetism being emitted from Manzano/Coyote Canyon area. Dr. BENNEWITZ also produced several photographs of flying objects taken over the general Albuquerque area. He has several pieces of electronic surveillance equipment pointed at Manzano and is attempting to record high frequency electrical beam pulses. Dr. BENNEWITZ claims these Aerial Objects produce these pulses. . . . After analyzing the data collected by Dr. BENNEWITZ, Mr MILLER related the evidence clearly shows that some type of unidentified aerial objects were caught on film; however, no conclusions could be made whether these objects pose a threat to Manzano/Coyote Canyon areas. Mr MILLER felt the electronical [sic] recording tapes were inconclusive and could have been gathered from several conventional sources. No sightings, other than these, have been reported in the area."
On November 10 Bennewitz was invited to the base to present his findings to a small group of officers and scientists. Exactly one week later Doty informed Bennewitz that AFOSI had decided against further consideration of the matter. Subsequently Doty reported receiving a call from then-New Mexico Sen. Harrison Schmitt, who wanted to know what AFOSI was planning to do about Bennewitz's allegations. When informed that no investigation was planned, Schmitt spoke with Brig. Gen. William Brooksher of base security. The following July New Mexico's other senator, Pete Domenici, looked into the matter, meeting briefly with Doty before dashing off to talk with Bennewitz personally. Domenici subsequently lost interest and dropped the issue.
Bennewitz was also aware of supposed cattle mutilations being reported in the western United States. At one point he met a young mother who told him that one evening in May 1980, after she and her six-year-old son saw several UFOs in a field and one approached them, they suffered confusion and disorientation, then a period of amnesia which lasted as long as four hours. Bennewitz brought the two to University of Wyoming psychologist R. Leo Sprinkle, who hypnotized them and got a detailed abduction story from the mother and a sketchy one from the little boy. Early in the course of the abduction they observed aliens take a calf aboard the UFO and mutilate it while it was still alive, removing the animal's genitals. At one point during the alleged experience, the mother said, they were taken via UFO into an underground area which she believed was in New Mexico. She briefly escaped her captors and fled into an area where there were tanks of water. She looked into one of them and saw body parts such as tongues, hearts and internal organs, apparently from cattle. But she also observed a human arm with a hand attached. There was also the "top of a bald head," apparently from one of the hairless aliens, but before she could find out for sure, she was dragged away. The objects in the tank, she said, "horrified me and made me sick and frightened me to death" (Howe, 1989). Later she wondered about the other tanks and about their contents.
The William Moore/MJ-12 Maze: Late in the summer of 1979 William L. Moore had left a teaching job in a small Minnesota town to relocate in Arizona, where he hoped to pursue a writing career. Moore was deeply involved in the investigation of an apparent UFO crash in New Mexico in July 1947, a case he and Charles Berlitz would recount in their The Roswell Incident the following year. After his move to the Southwest Moore became close to Coral and James Lorenzen of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) and in due course Moore was asked to join the APRO board. The Lorenzens told him about Bennewitz's claims. Bennewitz, Jim Lorenzen thought, was "prone to make great leaps of logic on the basis of incomplete data" (Moore, 1989a).
The Roswell Incident was published in the summer of 1980 and in September a debate on UFOs at the Smithsonian Institution was scheduled to take place. Moore set off from his Arizona home to Washington, D.C., to attend the debate and along the way promoted his new book on radio and television shows. According to an account he would give seven years later, an extraordinary series of events began while he was on this trip.
He had done a radio show in Omaha and was in the station lobby, suitcase in hand, on his way to catch a plane which was to leave within the hour when a receptionist asked if he was Mr. Moore. He had a phone call. The caller was a man who claimed to be a colonel at nearby Offutt AFB, He said, "We think you're the only one we've heard who seems to know what he's talking about." He asked if he and Moore could meet and discuss matters further. Moore said that since he was leaving town in the next few minutes, that would not be possible, though he wrote down the man's phone number.
Moore went on to Washington. On September 8, on his way back, he did a radio show in Albuquerque. On the way out of the studio the receptionist told him he had a phone call. The caller, who identified himself as an individual from nearby Kirtland AFB, said, "We think you're the only one we've heard about who seems to know what he's talking about." Moore said, "Where have I heard that before?"
Soon afterwards Moore and the individual he would call "Falcon" met at a local restaurant. Falcon, later alleged (though denied by Moore) to be U.S. Air Force Sgt. Richard Doty, said he would be wearing a red tie. This first meeting would initiate a long- running relationship between Moore (and, beginning in 1982, partner Jaime Shandera) and 10 members of a shadowy group said to be connected with military intelligence and to be opposed to the continuation of the UFO cover-up. The story that emerged from this interaction goes like this:
The first UFO crash, involving bodies of small, gray-skinned humanoids, occurred near Corona, New Mexico, in 1947 (the "Roswell incident"). Two years later a humanoid was found alive and it was housed at Los Alamos until its death in the early 1950s. It was called EBE, after "extraterrestrial biological entity," and it was the first of three the U.S. government would have in its custody between then and now. An Air Force captain, now a retired colonel, was EBE-1's constant companion. At first communication with it was almost impossible; then a speech device which enabled the being to speak a sort of English was implanted in its throat. It turned out that EBE-1, the equivalent of a mechanic on a spaceship, related what it knew of the nature and purpose of the visitation.
In response to the Roswell incident, MJ-12-the MJ stands for "Majestic"--as set up by executive order of President Harry Truman on September 24, 1947. MJ-12 operates as a policy-making body. Project Aquarius is an umbrella group in which all the various compartments dealing with ET-related issues perform their various functions. Project Sigma conducts electronic communication with the extraterrestrials, part of an ongoing contact project run through the National Security Agency since 1964, following a landing at Holloman AFB in late April of that year.
Nine extraterrestrial races are visiting the earth. One of these races, little gray-skinned people from the third planet surrounding Zeta Reticuli, have been here for 25,000 years and influenced the direction of human evolution. They also help in the shaping of our religious beliefs. Some important individuals within the cover-up want it to end and are preparing the American people for the reality of the alien presence through the vehicle of popular entertainment, including the films Close Encounters of the Third Kind, whose climax is a thinly-disguised version of the Holloman landing, and ET.
At CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, there is a thick book called "The Bible," a compilation of all the various project reports.
According to his own account, which he would not relate until 1989, Moore cooperated with his AFOSI sources-including, prominently, Richard Doty-and provided them with information. They informed him that there was considerable interest in Bennewitz. Moore was made to understand that as his part of the bargain he was to spy on Bennewitz and also on APRO as well as, in Moore's words, "to a lesser extent, several other individuals" (Moore, 1989a). He learned that several government agencies were interested in Bennewitz's activities and they wanted to inundate him with false information-disinformation, in intelligence parlance-to confuse him. Moore says he was not one of those providing the disinformation, but he knew some of those of who were, such as Doty.
Bennewitz on his own had already begun to devise a paranoid interpretation of what he thought he was seeing and hearing, and the disinformation passed on to him built on that foundation. His sources told him that the U.S. government and malevolent aliens are in an uneasy alliance to control the planet, that the aliens are killing and mutilating not only cattle but human beings, whose organs they need to lengthen their lives, and that they are even eating human flesh. In underground bases at government installations in Nevada and New Mexico human and alien scientists work together on ghastly experiments, including the creation of soulless androids out of human and animal body parts. Aliens are abducting as many as one American in 40 and implanting devices which control human behavior. ClA brainwashing and other control techniques are doing the same, turning life on earth into a nightmare of violence and irrationality. It was, as Moore remarks, "the wildest science fiction scenario anyone could possibly imagine."
But Bennewitz believed it. He grew ever more obsessed and tried to alert prominent persons to the imminent threat, showing photographs which he held showed human-alien activity in the Kirtland area but which dispassionate observers thought depicted natural rock formations and other mundane phenomena. Eventually Bennewitz was hospitalized, but on his release resumed his activities, which continue to this day. Soon the ghoulish scenario would spread into the larger UFO community and beyond and command a small but committed band of believers. But that would not happen until the late 1980s and it would not be Bennewitz who would be responsible for it.
In 1981 the Lorenzens received an anonymous letter from someone identifying himself as a "USAF Airman assigned to the 1550th Aircrew Training and Testing Wing at Kirtland AFB." The "airman" said, "On July 16, 1980, at between 10:30-10:45 A.M., Craig R. Weitzel. .. a Civil Air Patrol Cadet from Dobbins AFB, Ga., visiting Kirtland AFB, NM, observed a dull metallic colored UFO flying from South to North near Pecos New Mexico. Pecos has a secret training site for the 1550th Aircrew Training and Testing Wing, Kirtland AFB, NM. WEITZEL was with ten other individuals, including USAF active duty airmen, and all witnessed the sighting. WEITZEL took some pictures of the object. WEITZEL went closer to the UFO and observed the UFO land in a clearing approximately 250 yds, NNW of the training area. WEITZEL observed an individual dressed in a metallic suit depart the craft and walk a few feet away. The individual was outside the craft for just a few minutes. When the individual returned the craft took off towards the NW." The letter writer said he had been with Weitzel when the UFO flew overhead, but he had not been with him to observe the landing.
The letter went on to say that late on the evening of the next day a tall, dark-featured, black-suited man wearing sunglasses called on Weitzel at Kirtland. The stranger claimed to be "Mr. Huck" from Sandia Laboratories, a classified Department of Energy contractor on the base. Mr. Huck told Weitzel he had seen something he should not have seen, a secret aircraft from Los Alamos, and he demanded all of the photographs. Weitzel replied that he hadn't taken any, that the photographer was an airman whose name he did not know. "The individual warned Weitzel not to mention the sighting to anyone or Weitzel would be in serious trouble," the writer went on. "After the individual left Weitzel[']s room, Weitzel wondered how the individual knew of the sighting because Weitzel didn't report the sighting to anyone. Weitzel became scared after thinking of the threat the individual made. Weitzel call [sic] the Kirtland AFB Security Police and reported the incident to them. They referred the incident to the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), which investigates these matters according to the security police. A Mr. Dody [sic], a special agent with OSI, spoke with Weitzel and took a report. Mr. Dody [sic] also obtained all the photographs of the UFO. Dody [sic] told Weitzel he would look into the matter. That was the last anyone heard of the incident."
But that was not all the correspondent had to say. He added, "I have every reason to believe [sic] the USAF is covering up something. I spent a lot of time looking into this matter and I know there is more to it than the USAF will say. I have heard rumors, but serious rumors here at Kirtland that the USAF has a crashed UFO stored in the Manzano Storage area, which is located in a remote area of Kirtland AFB. This area is heavily guarded by USAF Security. I have spoke [sic] with two employees of Sandia Laboratories, who also store classified objects in Manzano, and they told me that Sandia has examined several UFO's during the last 20 years. One that crashed near Roswell NM in the late 50's was examined by Sandia scientists. That craft is still being store [sic] in Manzano.
"I have reason to believe [sic] OSI is conducting a very secret investigation into UFO sightings. OSI took over when Project Blue Book was closed. I was told this by my commander, COL Bruce Purvine. COL Purvine also told me that the investigation was so secret that most employees of OSI doesn't [sic] even know it. But COL Purvine told me that Kirtland AFB, AFOSI District 17 has a special secret detachment that investigates sightings around this area. They have also investigated the cattle mutilations in New Mexico."
In 1985 investigator Benton Jamison located Craig Weitzel, who confirmed that he had indeed seen a UFO in 1980 and reported it to Sgt. Doty. But his sighting, while interesting, was rather less dramatic than the CE3 reported in the letter; Weitzel saw a silver-colored object some 10,000 to 15,000 feet overhead. After maneuvering for a few minutes, he told Jamison, it "accelerated like you never saw anything accelerate before" (Hastings, 1985). He also said he knew nothing of a meeting with anyone identified as "Mr. Huck."
In December 1982, in response to a Freedom of Information request from Barry Greenwood of Citizens Against UFO Secrecy (CAUS), Air Force Office of Special Investigations released a two page OSI Complaint Form stamped "For Official Use Only." Dated September 8, 1980, it was titled "Kirtland AFB, NM, 8 Aug-3 Sept 80, Alleged Sightings of Unidentified Aerial Lights in Restricted Test Range." The document described several sightings of UFOs in the Manzano Weapons Storage Area, at the Coyote Canyon section of the Department of Defense Restricted Test Range. One of the reports cited was a New Mexico State Patrolman's August 10 observation of a UFO landing. (A later check with state police sources by Larry Fawcett, a Connecticut police officer and UFO investigator, uncovered no record of such a report. The sources asserted that the absence of a report could only mean that no such incident had ever happened.) This intriguing document is signed by then OSI Special Agent Richard C. Doty.
In 1987, after comparing three documents (the anonymous letter to APRO, the September 8, 1980, AFOSI Complaint Form, and a purported AFOSI document dated August 14, 1980, and claiming "frequency jamming" by UFOs in the Kirtland area), researcher Brad Sparks concluded that Doty had written all three. In 1989 Moore confirmed that Doty had written the letter to APRO. "Essentially it was 'bait,'" he says. "AFOSI knew that Bennewitz had close ties with APRO at the time, and they were interested in recruiting someone within . . . APRO . . . who would be in a position to provide them with feedback on Bennewitz'[s] activities and communications. Since I was the APRO Board member in charge of Special Investigations in 1980, the Weitzel letter was passed to me for action shortly after it had been received." According to Bruce Maccabee, Doty admitted privately that he had written the Ellsworth AFB document, basing it on a real incident which he wanted to bring to public attention. Doty has made no public comment on any of these allegations. Moore says Doty "was almost certainly a part of [the Ellsworth report], but not in a capacity where he would have been responsible for creating the documents involved" (Moore, 1989a).
Doty was also the source of an alleged AFOSI communication dated November 17, 1980, and destined to become known as the "Aquarius document." Allegedly sent from AFOSI headquarters at Bolling AFB in Washington, D.C., to the AFOSI District 17 office at Kirtland, it mentions, in brief and cryptic form, analyses of negatives from a UFO film apparently taken the previous month. The version that circulated through the UFO community states in its penultimate paragraph: "USAF NO LONGER PUBLICLY ACTIVE IN UFO RESEARCH, HOWEVER USAF STILL HAS INTEREST IN ALL UFO SIGHTINGS OVER USAF INSTALLATION/TEST RANGES. SEVERAL OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, LED BY NASA, ACTIVELY INVESTIGATES [sic] LEGITIMATE SIGHTINGS THROUGH COVERT COVER.... ONE SUCH COVER IS UFO REPORTING CENTER, US COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY, ROCKVILLE, MD 20852, NASA FILTERS RESULTS OF SIGHTINGS TO APPROPRIATE MILITARY DEPARTMENTS WITH INTEREST IN THAT PARTICULAR SIGHTING. THE OFFICIAL US GOVERNMENT POLICY AND RESULTS OF PROJECT AQUARIUS IS [sic] STILL CLASSIFIED TOP SECRET WITH NO DISSEMINATION [sic] OUTSIDE OFFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CHANNELS AND WITH RESTRICTED ACCESS TO 'MJ TWELVE'."
This is the first mention of "MJ-12" in an allegedly official government document. Moore describes it as an "example of some of the disinformation produced in connection with the Bennewitz case. The document is a retyped version of a real AFOSI message with a few spurious additions." Among the most significant additions, by Moore's account, are the bogus references to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and to NASA, which he says was NSA (National Security Agency) in the original.
According to Moore, Doty got the document "right off the teletype" (Moore, 1990) and showed it to Moore almost immediately. Later Doty came by with what purported to be a copy of it, but Moore noticed that it was not exactly the same; material had been added to it. Doty said he wanted Moore to give the doctored copy to Bennewitz. Reluctant to involve himself in the passing of this dubious document, Moore sat on it for a while, then finally worried that the sources he was developing, the ones who were telling him about the U.S. government's alleged interactions with EBEs, would dry up if he did not cooperate. So eventually he gave the document to Bennewitz but urged him not to publicize it. Bennewitz agreed and kept his promise.
As of September 1982 Moore knew of three copies of the document: the one Bennewitz had, one Moore had in safekeeping, and one he had in his briefcase during a trip he made that month to meet someone in San Francisco. He met the man in the morning and that afternoon someone broke into his car and stole his briefcase. Four months later a copy of the document showed up in the hands of a New York lawyer interested in UFOs, and soon the document was circulating widely. Moore himself had little to say on the subject until he delivered a controversial and explosive speech to the annual conference of the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) in Las Vegas in 1989.
In late 1982, "during," he says, "one of the many friendly conversations I had with Richard Doty," Moore mentioned that he was looking into the old (and seemingly discredited) story that a UFO had crashed in Aztec, New Mexico, in 1948. This tale was the subject of Frank Scully's 1950 book Behind the Flying Saucers. (Moore's long account of his investigation into the affair, which he found to be an elaborate hoax, would appear in the 1985 MUFON symposium proceedings.) Doty said he had never heard the story and asked for details, taking notes as Moore spoke.
On January 10 and 11, 1983, attorney Peter Gersten, director of CAUS, met with Doty in New Mexico. There were two meetings, the first of them also attended by Moore and San Francisco television producer Ron Lakis, the second by Gersten alone. During the first meeting Doty was guarded in his remarks. But at the second he spoke openly about what ostensibly were extraordinary secrets. He said the Ellsworth case was the subject of an investigation by AFOSI and the FBI; nuclear weapons were involved. The National Enquirer investigation, which had concluded the story was bogus, was "amateurish." At least two civilians, a farmer and a deputy sheriff, had been involved, but were warned not to talk. The government knows why UFOs appear in certain places, Doty said, but he would not elaborate. He added, however, that "beyond a shadow of a doubt they're extraterrestrial" (Greenwood, 1988) and from 50 light years from the earth. He knew of at least three UFO crashes, the Roswell incident and two others, one from the 1950s, the other from the 196Os. Bodies had been recovered. A spectacular incident, much like the one depicted in the ending of the film Close Encounters of the Third Kind, took place in 1966 The NSA was involved in communications with extraterrestrials; the effort is called Project Aquarius. Inside the UFO organizations government moles are collecting information and spreading disinformation. Doty discussed the Aquarius document and said the really important documents are impossible to get out of the appropriate files. Some are protected in such a way that they will disintegrate within five seconds' exposure to air. These documents tell of agreements between the U.S. government and extraterrestrials under which the latter are free to conduct animal mutilations (especially of cattle) and to land at a certain base, in exchange for information about advanced UFO technology. Doty also claimed that via popular entertainment the American people are being prepared to accept the reality of visitation by benevolent beings from other worlds.
At one point in the conversation Doty asked Gersten, "How do you know that I'm not here to either give you misinformation or to give you information which is part of the programming, knowing you are going to go out and spread it around?" (Howe, 1989).
In the 1970s, as director of special projects for the Denver CBS-TV affiliate, Linda Moulton Howe had produced 12 documentaries, most of them dealing with scientific, environmental and health issues. But the one that attracted the most attention was Strange Harvest, which dealt with the then- widespread reports that cattle in Western and Midwestern states were being killed and mutilated by persons or forces unknown. Most veterinary pathologists said the animals were dying of unknown causes. Farmers, ranchers and some law-enforcement officers thought the deaths were mysterious. Some even speculated that extraterrestrials were responsible. This possibility intrigued Howe, who had a lifelong interest in UFOs, and Strange Harvest argues for a UFO mutilation link.
In the fall of 1982, as Howe was working on a documentary on an unrelated matter, she got a call from Home Box Office (HBO). The caller said the HBO people had been impressed with Strange Harvest and wanted to know if Howe would do a film on UFOs. In March 1983 she went to New York to sign a contract with HBO for a show to be titled UFOs-The ET Factor.
The evening before her meeting with the HBO people, Howe had dinner with Gersten and science writer Patrick Huyghe. Gersten told Howe that he had met with Sgt. Doty, an AFOSI agent at Kirtland AFB, and perhaps Doty would be willing to talk on camera or in some other helpful capacity about the incident at Ellsworth. Gersten would call him and ask if he would be willing to meet with Howe.
Subsequently arrangements were made for Howe to fly to Albuquerque on April 9. Doty would meet her at the airport. But when she arrived that morning, no one was waiting. She called his home. A small boy answered and said his father was not there. Howe then phoned Jerry Miller, Chief of Reality Weapons Testing at Kirtland and a former Blue Book investigator. (He is mentioned in the October 28, 1980, "Multipurpose Internal OSI Form" reporting on Doty and Miller's meeting with Bennewitz.) She knew Miller from an earlier telephone conversation, when she had called to ask him about Bennewitz's claims, in which she had a considerable interest. Miller asked for a copy of Strange Harvest. Later he had given Howe his home phone number and said to contact him if she ever found herself in Albuquerque. So she called and asked if he would pick her up at the airport.
Miller drove Howe to his house. On the way Howe asked him a number of questions but got little in the way of answers. One question he did not answer was whether he is the "Miller" mentioned in the Aquarius document. When they got to Miller's residence, Miller called Doty at his home, and Doty arrived a few minutes later, responding aggressively to Howe's question about where he had been. He claimed to have been at the airport all along; where had she been? "Perhaps," Howe would write, "he had decided he didn't want to go through with the meeting, and it was acceptable in his world to leave me stranded at the airport-until Jerry Miller called his house" (Howe, 1989).
On the way to Kirtland, Howe asked Doty, whose manner remained both defiant and nervous, if he knew anything about the Holloman landing. Doty said it happened but that Robert Emenegger had the date wrong; it was not May 1971 but April 25, 1964-12 Hours after a much-publicized CE3 reported by Socorro, New Mexico, policeman Lonnie Zamora. (Zamora said he had seen an egg-shaped object on the ground. Standing near it were two child-sized beings in white suits.) Military and scientific personnel at the base knew a landing was coming, but "someone blew the time and coordinates" and an "advance military scout ship" had come down at the wrong time and place, to be observed by Zamora. When three UFOs appeared at Holloman at six o'clock the following morning, one landed while the other two hovered overhead. During the meeting between the UFO beings and a government party, the preserved bodies of dead aliens had been given to the aliens , who in turn had returned something unspecified. Five ground and aerial cameras recorded this event.
At the Kirtland gate Doty waved to the guard and was let through. They went to a small white and gray building. Doty took her to what he described as "my - boss' office." Doty seemed unwilling to discuss the Ellsworth case, the ostensible reason for the interview, but had much to say about other matters. First he asked Howe to move from the chair on which she was sitting to another in the middle of the room. Howe surmised that this was to facilitate the surreptitious recording of their conversation, but Doty said only, "Eyes can see through windows."
"My superiors have asked me to show you this," he said. He produced a brown envelope he had taken from a drawer in the desk at which he was sitting and withdrew several sheets of white paper. As he handed them to Howe, he warned her that they could not be copied; all she could do was read them in his presence and ask questions.
The document gave no indication anywhere as to which government, military or scientific agency (if any) had prepared the report, titled A Briefing Paper for the President of the United States on the Subject of Unidentified Flying Vehicles. The title did not specify which President it had in mind, nor did the document list a date (so far as Howe recalls today) which would have linked it to a particular administration.
The first paragraph, written--as was everything that followed-- in what Howe characterizes as "dry bureaucratese," listed dates and locations of crashes and retrievals of UFOs and their occupants. The latter were invariably described as 3 1/2 to four feet tall, gray-skinned and hairless, with oversized heads, large eyes and no noses. It was now known, the document stated on a subsequent page, that these beings, from a nearby solar system, have been here for many thousands of years. Through genetic manipulation they influenced the course of human evolution and in a sense created us. They had also helped shape our religious beliefs.
The July 1947 Roswell crash was mentioned; so, however, was another one at Roswell in 1949. Investigators at the site found five bodies and one living alien, who was taken to a safe house at the Los Alamos National Laboratory north of Albuquerque. The aliens, small gray-skinned humanoids, were known as "extraterrestrial biological entities" and the living one was called "EBE" (ee-buh). EBE was befriended (if that was the word) by an Air Force officer, but the being died of unknown causes on June 18, 1952. (EBE's friend, by 1964 a colonel, was among those who were there to greet the aliens who landed at Holloman.) Subsequently, it would be referred to as EBE-1, since in later years another such being, EBE-2, would take up residence in a safe house. After that, a third, EBE-3, appeared on the scene and was now living in secret at an American base.
The briefing paper said other crashes had occurred one near Kingman, Arizona, another just south of Texas in northern Mexico. It also mentioned the Aztec crash- The wreckage and bodies had been removed to such facilities as Los Alamos laboratory and Wright-Patterson AFB. A number of highly classified projects dealt with these materials. They included Snowbird (research and development from the study of an intact spacecraft left by the aliens as a gift) and Aquarius (the umbrella operation under which the research and contact efforts were coordinated). Project Sigma was the ongoing electronic communications effort. There was also a defunct project Garnet, intended to investigate extraterrestrial influence on human evolution. According to the document, extraterrestrials have appeared at various intervals in human history-25,000, 15,000, 5000 and 2500 years ago as well as now--to manipulate human and other DNA.
One paragraph stated briefly, "Two thousand years ago extraterrestrials created a being" who was placed here to teach peace and love. Elsewhere a passing mention was made of another group of EBEs, called the "Talls."
The paper said Project Blue Book had existed solely to take heat off the Air Force and to draw attention away from the real projects. Doty mentioned an "MJ-12," explaining that "MJ" stood for "Majority." It was a policy-making body whose membership consisted of 12 very high-ranking government scientists, military officers and intelligence officials. These were the men who made the decisions governing the cover-up and the contacts.
Doty said Howe would be given thousands of feet of film of crashed discs, bodies, EBE-1 and the Holloman landing and meeting. She could use this material in her documentary to tell the story of how U.S. officials learned that the earth is being visited and what they have done about it. "We want you to do the film," Howe quotes him as saying.
When Howe asked why she, not the New York Times, the Washington Post or 60 Minutes, was getting this, the story of the millennium, Doty replied bluntly that an individual media person is easier to manipulate and discredit than a major organization with expensive attorneys. He said that another plan to release the information, through Emenegger and Sandler, had been halted because political conditions were not right.
Over the next weeks Howe had a number of phone conversations with Doty, mostly about technical problems related to converting old film to videotape. She spoke on several occasions with three other men but did not meet them personally.
Doty suggested that eventually she might be allowed to film an interview with EBE-3. But the current film project was to have a historical emphasis; it would deal with events between 1949 and 1964. If at some point she did meet EBE-3, however, there was no way she could prepare herself for the "shock and fear" of meeting an alien being.
Howe, of course, had informed her HBO contacts, Jean Abounader and her superior Bridgett Potter, of these extraordinary developments. Howe urged them to prepare themselves, legally and otherwise, for the repercussions that would surely follow the release of the film. The HBO people told her she would have to secure a letter of intent from the U.S. government with a legally-binding commitment to release the promised film footage. When Howe called Doty about it, he said, "I'll work on it." He said he would mail the letter directly to HBO.
Then HBO told her it would not authorize funds for the film production until all the evidence was in hand and, as Potter put it, Howe had the "President, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State and Joint Chiefs of Staff to back it up" (Howe, 1989). But proceed anyway, Howe was told. Now she was furious at both HBO and Doty.
When she called him at the base, he remarked that he had good news and bad news. She and a small crew would soon be able to interview the retired colonel (then a captain) who had spent three years with EBE-1. The bad news was that it would be three months before the thousands of feet of film of EBE-1 and the Holloman landing/contact would be available. Meanwhile, before she could screen the footage, Howe would have to sign three security oaths and undergo a background check. She would also have to supply photographs of all the technical assistants who would accompany her to the interview.
The interview was repeatedly set up and canceled. Then in June Doty called to say he was officially out of the project. This was a blow because Doty was the only one she could call. She did not know how to get in touch with the others and always had to wait for them to contact her.
By October the contacts had decreased. The same month her contract with HBO expired. All she had was the name of the Washington contact. In March 1984 this individual called her office three times, although she was out of town working on a non-UFO story at the time. "Upon returning home," she writes, "I learned the man was contacting me to explain there would be further delays in the film project after the November 1984 election" (Howe, 1989).
For Howe that was the end of the matter, except for a brief sequel. On March 5, 1988, Doty wrote ufologist Larry W. Bryant, who had unsuccessfully sought access to Doty's military records through the Freedom of Information Act, and denied that he had ever discussed government UFO secrets or promised footage of crashed discs, bodies and live EBEs. Howe responded by making a sworn statement about the meeting an producing copies of her correspondence from the period with both Doty and HBO.
In 1989 Moore said that "in early 1983 I became aware that Rick [Doty] was involved with a team of several others, including one fellow from Denver that I knew of and at least one who was working out of Washington, D.C., in playing an elaborate disinformation scheme against a prominent UfO researcher who, at the time, had close connections with a major television film company interested in doing a UFO documentary." He was referring to Howe, of course. The episode was a counterintelligence sting operation, part of the "wall of disinformation" intended to "confuse" the Bennewitz issue and to "call his credibility into question." Because of Howe's interest in Bennewitz's work, according to Moore, "certain elements within the intelligence community were concerned that the story of his having intercepted low frequency electromagnetic emissions from the Coyote Canyon area of the Kirtland/Sandia complex would end up as part of a feature film. Since this in turn might influence others (possibly even the Russians) to attempt similar experiments, someone in a control position apparently felt it had to be stopped before it got out of hand." In his observation, Moore said, "the government seemed hell bent on severing the ties that existed between [Howe] and [HBO]" (Moore, 1989b).
Doty's assertion that Howe had misrepresented their meeting was not to be taken seriously, according to Moore, since Doty was bound by a security oath and could not discuss the matter freely Moore said that the Aztec crash, known beyond reasonable doubt never to have occurred, was something Doty had added to the document after learning from Moore of his recent investigation of the hoax.
In December 1984, in the midst of continuing contact with their own sources (Doty and a number of others) who claimed to be leaking the secret of the cover-up, Moore's associate Jaime Shandera received a roll of 35mm film containing, it turned out what purported to be a briefing paper dated November 18, 1952, and intended for president-elect Eisenhower. The purported author, Adm. Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, reported that an "Operation Majestic-12," consisting of a dozen top scientists, military officers and intelligence specialists, had been set up by presidential order on September 24, 1947, to study the Roswell remains and the four humanoid bodies that had been recovered nearby. The document report that the team directed by MJ12 member and physiologist Detlev Bronk "has suggested the term 'Extra- terrestrial Biological Entities', or 'EBEs', be adopted as the standard term of reference for these creatures until such time as a more definitive designation can be agreed upon." Brief mention is also made of a December 6, 1950, crash along the Texas-Mexico border. Nothing is said, however, about live aliens or communications with them.
In July 1985 Moore and Shandera, acting on tips from their sources, traveled to Washington and spent a few days going through recently declassified documents in Record Group 341, including Top Secret Air Force intelligence files from USAF Headquarters. In the 126th box whose contents they examined, they found a brief memo dated July 14, 1954, from Robert Cutler, Special Assistant to the President, to Gen. Nathan Twining. It says "The president has decided that the MJ-12/SSP [Special Studies Project] briefing should take place during the already scheduled White House meeting of July 16 rather than following it as previously intended. More precise arrangements will be explained to you upon your arrival. Your concurrence in the above change of arrangements is assumed" (Friedman, 1987).
The Cutler/Twining memo, as it would be called in the controversies that erupted after Moore released the MJ-12 document to the world in the spring of 1987, is the only official document-not to be confused with such disputed ones as the November 17, 1980, Aquarius document-to mention MJ-12. (Several critics of the MJ-12 affair have questioned the memo's authenticity as well, but so far without unambiguous success.) The memo does not, of course, say what the MJ12 Special Studies Project was.
MJ-12 Goes Public: Just prior to Moore's release of the MJ-12 briefing paper, another copy was leaked to British ufologist Timothy Good, who took his copy to the press. The first newspaper article on it appeared in the London Observer of May 31, 1987, and soon it was the subject of pieces in the New York Times, Washington Post and ABC-TV's Nightline. It was also denounced, not altogether persuasively, both by professional debunkers and by many ufologists. The dispute would rage without resolution well into 1989, when critics discovered that President Truman's signature on the September 24, 1947, executive order (appended to the briefing paper) was exactly like his signature on an undisputed, UFO-unrelated October 1, 1947, letter to his science adviser (and supposed MJ-12 member) Vannevar Bush. To all appearances a forger had appended a real signature to a fake letter. The MJ-12 document began to look like another disinformation scheme.
Although acutely aware of the mass of disinformation circulating throughout the UFO community, Moore remained convinced that at least some of the information his own sources were giving him was authentic. In 1988 he provided two of his sources, "Falcon" (Sgt. Doty according to some) and "Condor" (later claimed to be former U.S. Air Force Capt. Robert Collins), to a television production company. (Moore and Shandera had given them avian names and called the sources collectively "the birds.") UFO Cover-up . . . Live, a two-hour program, aired in October 1988, with Falcon and Condor, their faces shaded, their voices altered, relating the same tales with which they had regaled Moore and Shandera. The show, almost universally judged a laughable embarrassment, was most remembered for the informants' statements that the aliens favored ancient Tibetan music and strawberry ice cream. Critics found the latter allegation especially hilarious.
Lear's Conspiracy Theory: Events on the UFO scene were taking a yet more bizarre turn that same year as even wilder tales began to circulate. The first to tell them was John Lear, a pilot with a background in the CIA and the estranged son of aviation legend William P. Lear. Lear had surfaced two or three years earlier, but aside from his famous father there seemed little to distinguish him from any of hundreds of other UFO buffs who subscribe to the field's publications and show up at its conferences. But then he started claiming that unnamed sources had told him of extraordinary events which made those told by Doty and the birds sound like bland and inconsequential anecdotes.
According to Lear, not just a few but dozens of flying saucers had crashed over the years. In 1962 the U.S. government started Project Redlight to find a way to fly the recovered craft, some relatively intact. A similar project exists even now and is run out of supersecret military installation; one is Area 51 (specifically at a facility called S4) at the Nevada Test Site and the other is set up near Dulce, New Mexico. These areas, unfortunately, may no longer be under the control of the government or even of the human race. In the late 1960s an official agency so secret that not even the President may know of it had made an agreement with the aliens. In exchange for extraterrestrial technology the secret government would permit (or at least not interfere with) a limited number of abductions of human beings; the aliens, however, were to provide a list of those they planned to kidnap.
All went relatively well for a few years. Then in 1973 the government discovered that thousands of persons who were not on the alien's list were being abducted. The resulting tensions led to an altercation in 1978 or 1979. The aliens held and then killed 44 top scientists as well as a number of Delta force troops who had tried to free them. Ever since, frantic efforts, of which the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars") is the most visible manifestation, have been made to develop a defense against the extraterrestrials, who are busy putting implants into abductees (as many as one in 10 Americans) to control their behavior. At some time in the near future these people will be used for some unknown, apparently sinister, alien purpose. Even worse than all this, though, is the aliens' interest in Human flesh. Sex and other organs are taken from both human beings and cattle and used to create androids in giant vats located in underground laboratories at Area 51 and Dulce. The extraterrestrials, from an ancient race near the end of its evolution, also use materials from human body parts as a method of biological rejuvenation. ("In order to sustain themselves," he said, "they use an enzyme or hormonal secretion obtained from the tissue that they extract from humans and animals. The secretions are then mixed with hydrogen peroxide and applied on the skin by spreading or dipping parts of their bodies in the solution. The body absorbs the solution, then excretes the waste back through the skin" [Berk and Renzi, 1988].)
One of Lear's major sources was Bennewitz, who had first heard these scary stories from AFOSI personnel at Kirtland in the early 1980s. By this time Bennewitz had become something of a guru to a small group of UFO enthusiasts, Linda Howe among them, who believed extraterrestrials were mutilating cattle and had no trouble believing they might do the same thing to people. Also Lear, whose political views are far to the right of center, was linking his UFO beliefs with conspiracy theories about a malevolent secret American government which was attempting to use the aliens for its own purposes, including enslavement of the world's people through drug addiction. A considerable body of rightwing conspiracy literature, some with barely-concealed anti- Semitic overtones, was making similar charges. Lear himself was not anti-Semitic, but he did share conspiracy beliefs with those who were.
Another of his claimed sources was an unnamed physicist who, Lear claimed, had actually worked at S4. To the many ufologists who rejected Lear's stories as paranoid, lunatic or fabricated (though not by the patently-sincere Lear), there was widespread skepticism about this physicist's existence. It turned out that he did indeed exist. His name is Robert Lazar, who, according to a story broken by reporter George Knapp on KLAS-TV, the ABC affiliate in Las Vegas, on November 11 and 13, 1989, claims to have worked on alien technology projects at Area 51. Lazar, whose story is being investigated by both ufologists and mainstream journalists, has not endorsed Lear's claims about human-alien treaties, man-eating ETs or any of the rest and has distanced himself from Lear and his associates. His claims, while fantastic by most standards, are modest next to Lears.
Cooper's Conspiracy Theory: Soon Lear was joined by someone with an even bigger supply of fabulous yarns: one Milton William Cooper. Cooper surfaced on December 18, 1988, when his account of the fantastic secrets he learned while a Naval petty officer appeared on a computer network subscribed to by ufologists and others interested in anomalous phenomena. Cooper said that while working as a quartermaster with an intelligence team for Adm.
Bernard Clarey, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Meet, in the early 1970s he saw two documents, Project Grudge Special Report 13 and a Majority briefing. (In conventional UFO history, Grudge was the second public Air Force UFO project, superseding the original Sign, in early 1949 and lasting until late 1951, when it was renamed Blue Book. Whereas Sign investigators at one time concluded UFOs were of extraterrestrial origin--a conclusion the Air force leadership found unacceptable--Grudge, as its name suggests coincidentally or otherwise, was known for its hostility to the idea of UFOs and for its eagerness to assign conventional explanations, warranted or otherwise, to the sighting reports that came its way.) Cooper's account of what was in these reports is much like the by-now familiar story of crashes, bodies, contacts and projects, with some elaborations. Moreover, he said the aliens were called "ALFs" (which as any television viewer knows, stands for Alien Life forms) and the "M" in MJ-12 is for Majority not Majestic. Later he would say he had seen photographs of aliens, including a type he called the "big-nosed grays"-like those that supposedly landed at Holloman in 1964 or 1971. The U.S. government was in contact with them and alien-technology projects were going on at Area 51.
If this sounded like a rehash of Moore and Lear, that was only because Cooper had yet to pull out all the stops. On May 23, 1989, Cooper produced a 25-page document titled The Secret Government: The Origin, Identity And Purpose of MJ-12. He presented it as a lecture in Las Vegas a few weeks later. In Cooper's version of the evolving legend, the "secret government," an unscrupulous group of covert CIA and other intelligence operatives who keep many of their activities sealed from even the President's knowledge, runs the country. One of its first acts was to murder one-time Secretary of Defense (and alleged early MJ-12 member) James Forrestal the death was made to look like suicide-because he threatened to expose the UFO cover-up. Nonetheless, President Truman, fearing an invasion from outer space, kept other nations, including the Soviet Union, abreast of developments. But keeping all this secret was a real problem, so an international secret society known as the Bilderbergers, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, was formed. Soon it became a secret world government and "now controls everything," Cooper said.
All the while flying saucers were dropping like flies out of the heavens. In 1953 there were 10 crashes in the United States alone. Also that year, astronomers observed huge spaceships heading toward the earth and in time entering into orbit around the equator. Project Plato was established to effect communication with these new aliens. One of the ships landed and a face-to-face meeting took place, and plans for diplomatic relations were laid. Meanwhile a race of human-looking aliens warned the U.S. government that the new visitors were not to be trusted and that if the government got rid of its nuclear weapons, the human aliens would help us in our spiritual development, which would keep us from destroying ourselves through wars and environmental pollution. The government rejected these overtures.
The big-nosed grays, the ones who had been orbiting the equator, landed again, this time at Holloman AFB, in 1954 and reached an agreement with the U.S. government. These beings stated that they were from a dying planet that orbits Betelguese. At some point in the not too distant future, they said, they would have to leave there for good. A second meeting took place not long afterwards at Edwards AFB in California. This time President Eisenhower was there to sign a formal treaty and to meet the first alien ambassador, "His Omnipotent Highness Krlll," pronounced Krill. He, in common with his fellow space travelers, wore a trilateral insignia on his uniform; the same design appears on all Betelguese spacecraft.
According to Cooper's account, the treaty's provisions were these: Neither side would interfere in the affairs of the other. The aliens would abduct humans from time to time and would return them unharmed, with no memory of the event. It would provide a list of names of those it was going to take. The U.S. government would keep the aliens' presence a secret and it would receive advanced technology from them. The two sides would exchange 16 individuals each for the purpose of learning from and teaching each other. The aliens would stay on earth and the humans would go to the other planet, then return after a specified period of time. The two sides would jointly occupy huge underground bases which would be constructed at hidden locations in the Southwest.
(It should be noted that the people listed as members of MJ-12 are largely from the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission. These organizations play a prominent role in conspiracy theories of the far right. In a book on the subject George Johnson writes, "After the Holocaust of World War II, anti-Semitic conspiracy theories became repugnant to all but the fringe of the American right. Populist fears of the power of the rich became focused instead on organizations that promote international capitalism, such as the Trilateral Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Bilderbergers, a group of world leaders and businesspeople who held one of their early conferences on international relations at the Bilderberg Hotel in the Netherlands" [Johnson, 1983]. According to Cooper, the trilateral emblem is taken directly from the alien flag. He adds that under Presidents Nixon, Ford and Carter MJ-12 became known as the 50 Committee. Under Reagan it was renamed the PI-40 Committee.)
By 1955, during the Eisenhower years, Cooper charged, officials learned for certain what they had already begun to suspect a year earlier: that the aliens had broken the treaty before the ink on it had time to dry. They were killing and mutilating both human beings and animals, failing to supply a complete list of abductees, and not returning some of those they had taken. On top of that, they were conspiring with the Soviets, manipulating society through occultism, witchcraft, religion and secret organizations. Eisenhower prepared a secret executive memo, NSC 5411, ordering a study group of 35 top members (the "Jason Society") associated with the Council on Foreign Relations to "examine aIl the facts, evidence, lies, and deception and discover the truth of the alien question" (Cooper, 1989). Because the resulting meetings were held at Quantico Marine Base, they were called the Quantico meetings. Those participating included Edward Teller, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Henry Kissinger and Nelson Rockefeller.
The group decided that the danger to established social, economic, religious and political institutions was so grave that no one must know about the aliens, not even Congress. That meant that alternative sources of funding would have to be found. It also concluded that the aliens were using human organs and tissue to replenish their deteriorating genetic structure.
Further, according to Cooper, overtures were made to the Soviet Union and other nations so that all the earth could join together to deal with the alien menace. Research into sophisticated new weapons systems commenced. Intelligence sources penetrated the Vatican hoping to learn the Fatima prophecy which had been kept secret ever since 1917. It was suspected that the Fatima, Portugal, "miracle" was an episode of alien manipulation. As it turned out, the prophecy stated that in 1992 a child would unite the world under the banner of a false religion. By 1995 people would figure out that he was the Anti-Christ. That same year World War III would begin when an alliance of Arab nations invaded Israel. This would lead to nuclear war in 1999. The next four years would see horrible death and suffering all over the planet. Christ would return in 2011.
When confronted about this, claimed Cooper, the aliens candidly acknowledged it was true. They knew it because they had traveled into the future via time machine and observed it with their own eyes. They added that they created us through genetic manipulation. Later the Americans and the Soviets also developed time travel and confirmed the Fatima/ET vision of the future.
In 1957 the Jason group met again, by order of Eisenhower, to decide what to do. It came up with three alternatives: (l) Use nuclear bombs to blow holes in the stratosphere so that pollution could escape into space. (2) Build a huge network of tunnels under the earth and save enough human beings of varying cultures, occupations and talents so that the race could reemerge after the nuclear and environmental catastrophes to come. Everybody else- i.e., the rest of humanity--would be left on the surface presumably to die. (3) Employ alien and terrestrial technology to leave earth and colonize the moon (code name "Adam") and Mars ("Eve"). The first alternative was deemed impractical, so the Americans and the Soviets started working on the other two. Meanwhile they decided that the population would have to be controlled, which could be done most easily by killing off as many "undesirables" as possible. Thus AIDS and other deadly diseases were introduced into the population. Another idea to raise needed funds was quickly acted on: sell drugs on a massive scale. An ambitious young member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a Texas oil-company president named George Bush, was put in charge of the project, with the aid of the CIA. "The plan worked better than anyone had thought " CooPer said. "The CIA now controls all the worlds [sic] illegal drug markets" (Cooper, 1989).
Unknown to just about everybody, a secret American/Soviet/alien space base existed on the dark side of the moon. By the early 1960s human colonies were thriving on the surface of Mars. All the while the naive people of the earth were led to believe the Soviets and the Americans were something other than the closest allies. But Cooper's story got even more bizarre and byzantine.
He claimed that in 1963, when President Kennedy found out some of what was going on, he gave an ultimatum to MJ-12: get out of the drug business. He also declared that in 1964 he would tell the American people about the alien visitation. Agents of MJ-12 ordered his assassination. Kennedy was murdered in full view of many hundreds of onlookers, none of whom apparently noticed, by the Secret Service agent driving the President's car in the motorcade.
In 1969, reported Cooper, a confrontation between human scientists and aliens at the Dulce laboratory resulted in the former's being taken hostage by the latter. Soldiers who tried to free the scientists were killed, unable to overcome the superior alien weapons. The incident led to a two-year rupture in relations. The alliance was resumed in 1971 and continues to this day, even as a vast invisible financial empire run by the CIA, the NSA and the Council on Foreign Relations runs drugs, launders money and encourages massive street crime so that Americans will be susceptible to gun-control legislation. The CIA has gone so far as to employ drugs and hypnosis to cause mentally-unstable individuals to commit mass murder of schoolchildren and other innocents, the point being to encourage anti-gun hysteria. All of this is part of the plot, aided and abetted by the mass media (also under the secret government's control), to so scare Americans that they will soon accept the declaration of martial law when that happens, people will be rounded up and put in concentration camps already in place. From there they will be flown to the moon and Mars to work as slave labor in the space colonies.
The conspirators already run the world. As Cooper put it, "Even a cursory investigation by the most inexperienced researcher will show that the members of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral commission control the major foundations, all of the major media and publishing interests, the largest banks, all the major corporations, the - upper echelons of the government, and many other vital interests."
Reaction to Lear and Cooper: Whereas Lear had felt some obligation to name a source or two, or at least to mutter something about "unnamed sources," Cooper told his lurid and outlandish tale as if it were so self-evidently true that sources or supporting data were irrelevant. And to the enthusiastic audiences flocking to Cooper's lectures, no evidence was necessary. By the fall of the year Cooper was telling his stories--whose sources were, in fact, flying-saucer folklore, AFOSI disinformation unleashed during the Bennewitz episode, conspiracy literature, and outright fiction--to large crowds of Californians willing to pay $l0 or $15 apiece for the thrill of being scared silly.
Lear and Cooper soon were joined by two other tellers of tales of UFO horrors and Trilateral conspiracies, William English and John Grace (who goes under the pseudonym "Val Valarian" and heads the Nevada Aerial Research Group in Las Vegas).
Few if any mainstream ufologists took these stories seriously and at first treated them as something of a bad joke. But when it became clear that Lear, Cooper and company were commanding significant media attention and finding a following among the larger public interested in ufology's fringes, where a claim's inherent improbability had never been seen as an obstacle to believe in it, the leaders of the UFO community grew ever more alarmed.
One leader who was not immediately alarmed was Walter H. Andrus, Jr., director of the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), one of the two largest UFO organizations in the United States (the other being the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies [CUFOS]). In 1987, before Lear had proposed what some wags would call the Dark Side Hypothesis, he had offered to host the 1989 MUFON conference in Las Vegas. Andrus agreed. But as Lear's true beliefs became known, leading figures within MUFON expressed concern about Lear's role in the conference. When Andrus failed to respond quickly, MUFON officials were infuriated.
Facing a possible palace revolt, Andrus informed Lear that Cooper, whom Lear had invited to speak at the conference, was not an acceptable choice. But to the critics on the MUFON board and elsewhere in the organization, this was hardly enough. One of them, longtime ufologist Richard Hall, said this was "like putting a Band-Aid on a hemorrhage" (Hall, 1989). In a heated telephone exchange Andrus called Hall's objections to Lear "just one man's opinion" and claimed support, which turned out not to exist, from other MUFON notables. In a widely-distributed open letter to Andrus, Hall wrote, "Having Lear run the symposium and be a major speaker at it is comparable to NICAP in the 1960's having George Adamski run a NICAP conference! " (NICAP, the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, of which Hall was executive secretary in the late 1950s and much of the 1960s, was a conservative UFO-research organization which attacked as fraudulent the claims of Adamski, who wrote books about his meetings with Venusians and distributed photographs of what he said were their spaceships.) Hall went on, "You seem to be going for the colorful and the spectacular rather than for the critical-minded approach of science; you even expressed the view- in effect-that having a panel to question Lear critically would be good show biz and the 'highlight' of the symposium. Maybe so, but it obviously would dominate the entire program, grab off all major news media attention, and put UFO research in the worst possible light." Hall declared, "I am hereby resigning from the MUFON Board and I request that my name be removed from all MUFON publications or papers that indicate me to be a Board Member."
Fearing more resignations, Andrus moved to make Lear barely more than a guest at his own conference. He was not to lecture there, as previously planned, and hosting duties would be handled, for the most part, by others. Lear ended up arranging an "alternative conference" at which he, Cooper, English and Don Ecker presented the latest elaborations on the Dark Side Hypothesis. Meanwhile another storm was brewing. On March 1, 1989, an Albuquerque ufologist, Robert Hastings, issued a 13-page statement, with 37 pages of appended documents, and mailed it to many of ufology's most prominent individuals. Hastings opened with these remarks:
"First, it has been established that 'Falcon,' one of the principle [sic] sources of the MJ-12 material, is Richard C. Doty, formerly attached to District 17 Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sgt. Doty retired from the U.S. Air Force on October 1, 1988.
"How do I know that Doty is 'Falcon?' During a recent telephone conversation, Linda Moulton Howe told me that when Sgt. Doty invited her to his office at Kirtland AFB in early April 1983, and showed her a purportedly authentic U.S. government document on UFOs, he identified himself as code-name 'Falcon' and stated that it was Bill Moore who had given him that name.
"Also, in early December 1988, a ranking member of the production team responsible for the 'UFO Cover Up?-Live' television documentary confirmed that Doty is 'Falcon.' This same individual also identified the second MJ-12 source who appeared on the program, 'Condor' as Robert Collins who was, until recently, a Captain in the U.S. Air Force. Like Doty, he was stationed at KAFB when he left the service late last year." (Collins, a scientist, was assigned to the plasma physics group at Sandia National Laboratories on the Kirtland Air Force Base. Following his retirement he moved to Indiana and remains actively interested in UFOs.)
Hastings reviewed evidence of Doty's involvement in the concoction of various questionable documents and stories, including the Ellsworth tale and the Weitzel affair. He also noted important discrepancies between the paper Howe saw and the MJ-12 briefing document. For example, while the first mentioned the alleged Aztec crash, the second said nothing about it at all. Hastings wondered, "[I]f the briefing paper that Sgt. Doty showed to Linda Howe was genuine, what does that say about the accuracy (and authenticity) of the Eisenhower document? If, on the other hand, the former was bogus and was meant to mislead Howe for some reason, what does that say about Richard 'Falcon' Doty's reliability as a source for MJ-12 material as a whole?" (Hastings, 1989). Hastings also had much critical to say about Moore, especially about an incident in which Moore had flashed a badge in front of ufologist/cover-up investigator Lee Graham and indicated he was working with the government on a project to release UFO information. (Moore would characterize this as a misguided practical joke.)
Both Moore and Doty denied that the latter was Falcon. They claimed Doty had been given that pseudonym long after the 1983 meeting with Howe. Howe, however, stuck by her account. Moore and Doty said the real Falcon, an older man than Doty had been in the studio audience as the video of his interview was being broadcast on UFO Cover-up. . . Live. Doty himself was in New Mexico training with the state police.
Moore's Confession: By mid-1989 the two most controversial figures in ufology were Moore and Lear. Moore's MUFON lecture on July 1 did nothing to quiet his legion of critics. On his arrival in Las Vegas, Moore checked into a different hotel from the one at which the conference was being held. He already had refused to submit his paper for publication in the symposium proceedings, so no one knew what he would say. He had also stipulated that he would accept no questions from the floor.
Moore's speech stunned and angered much of the audience. At one point the shouts and jeers of Lear's partisans brought proceedings to a halt until order was restored. Moore finished and exited immediately. He left Las Vegas not long afterwards.
In his lecture Moore spoke candidly, for the first time, of his part in the counterintelligence operation against Bennewitz. "My role in the affair," he said, "was largely that of a freelancer providing information on Paul's current thinking and activities." Doty, "faithfully carrying out orders which he personally found distasteful," was one of those involved in the effort to confuse and discredit Bennewitz. Because of his success at this effort, Moore suggested, Doty was chosen by the real "Falcon" as "liaison person, although I really don't know. Frankly, I don't believe that Doty does either. In my opinion he was simply a pawn in a much larger game, just as I was."
From disinformation passed on by AFOSI sources, and his own observations and guesses, according to Moore, "by mid-1982" Bennewitz had put together a story that "contained virtually all of the elements found in the current crop of rumors being circulated around the UFO community." Moore was referring to the outlandish tales Lear and Cooper were telling. Moore said that "when I first ran into the disinformation operation . . . being run on Bennewitz . . . [i)t seemed to me . . . I was in a rather unique position. There I was with my foot . . . in the door of a secret counterintelligence game that gave every appearance of being somehow directly connected to a high-level government UFO project, and, judging by the positions of the people I knew to be directly involved with it, definitely had something to do with national security! There was no way I was going to allow the opportunity to pass me by without learning at least something about what was going on. . . . I would play the disinformation game, get my hands dirty just often enough to lead those directing the process into believing that I was doing exactly what they wanted me to do, and all the while continue to burrow my way into the matrix so as to learn as much as possible about who was directing it and why." Some of the same people who were passing alleged UFO secrets on to Moore were also involved in the operation against Bennewitz. Moore knew that some of the material he was getting--essentially a mild version of the Bennewitz scenario, without the horror, paranoia and conspiracy--was false, but he (along with Jaime Shandera and Stanton Friedman, to whom he confided the cover-up story in June 1982; Friedman, however, would not learn of Moore's role in the Bennewitz episode until seven years later) felt that some of it was probably true, since an invariable characteristic of disinformation is that it contains some facts. Moore also said that Linda Howe had been the victim of one of Doty's disinformation operations.
Before he stopped cooperating with such schemes in 1984, Moore said, he had given "routine information" to AFOSI about certain other individuals in the UFO community. Subsequently he claimed that during this period this emphasis) "three other members of the UFO community . . . were actively doing the same thing. I have since learned of a fourth. . . . All four are prominent individuals whose identities, if disclosed, would cause considerable controversy in the UFO community and bring serious embarrassment to two of its major organizations. To the best of my knowledge, at least two of these people are still actively involved" (Moore, 1989b).
Although he would not reveal the identities of the government informants within ufology, Moore gave the names of several persons "who were the subject of intelligence community interest between 1980 and 1984." They were:
(1) Len Stringfield, a ufologist known for his interest in crashed-disc stories; in 1980 he had been set up by a counterintelligence operative who gave him phony pictures of what purported to be humanoids in cold storage.
(2) The late Pete Mazzola, whose knowledge of film footage from a never-publicized Florida UFO case was of great interest to counterintelligence types. Moore was directed to urge Mazzola to send the footage to ufologist Kal Korff (who knew nothing of the scheme) for analysis; then Moore would make a copy and pass it on to Doty. But Mazzola never got the film, despite promises, and the incident came to nothing. "I was left with the impression," Moore wrote, "that the file had been intercepted and the witnesses somehow persuaded to cease communication with Mazzola."
(3) Peter Gersten, legal counsel for Citizens Against UFO Secrecy (CAUS), who had spearheaded a (largely unsuccessful) legal suit against the NSA seeking UFO information.
(4) Larry Fawcett, an official of CAUS and coauthor of a book on the cover-up, Clear Intent (1984).
(5) James and Coral Lorenzen, the directors of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) periodically "subjects of on-again, off again interest . . . mostly passive monitoring rather than active meddling," according to Moore. Between 1980 and 1982 APRO employed a "cooperative" secretary who passed on confidential material to counterintelligence personnel.
(6) Larry W. Bryant, who was battling without success in the courts to have UFO secrets revealed. Moore said, "His name came up often in discussions but I never had any direct involvement in whatever activities revolved around him."
These revelations sent shock waves through the UFO community. In September CAUS devoted virtually all of an issue of its magazine Just Cause to a harshly critical review of Moore's activities. Barry Greenwood declared that the "outrageousness" of Moore's conduct "cannot be described. Moore, one of the major critics of government secrecy on UFOs, had covertly informed on people who thought he was their friend and colleague. Knowing full well that the government people with whom he was dealing were active disinformants, Moore pursued a relationship with them and observed the deterioration of Paul Bennewitz'[s] physical and mental health. . . . Moore reported the effects of the false information regularly to some of the very same people who were 'doing it' to Paul. And Moore boasted in his speech as to how effective it was" (Greenwood, 1989). Greenwood complained further about Moore's admission that on the disastrous Cover-up . . . Live show Falcon and Condor had said things that they knew were untrue. "In the rare situation where two hours of prime time television are given over to a favorable presentation of UFOs, here we have a fair portion of the last hour wasted in presenting what Moore admits to be false data. . . . Yet he saw fit to go ahead and carry on a charade, making UFO research look ridiculous in the process. Remarks by Falcon and Condor about the aliens' lifestyle and preference for Tibetan music and strawberry ice cream were laughable." So far as Greenwood and CAUS, skeptical of the MJ-12 briefing document from the first, were concerned, "July 1, 1989, may well be remembered in the history of UFO research as the day when the 'Majestic 12' story came crashing to Earth in a heap of rubble. Cause of death: Suicide!"
Nonetheless it seemed unlikely that MJ-12, EBEs, and other cover-up matters would pass away soon. The Dark Siders appeared well on their way to starting a new occult movement in America and elsewhere. Among movie conservative ufologists many legitimate questions about conceivably more substantive matters remained to be answered. A reinvestigation of the Roswell incident by Don Schmitt and Kevin D. Randle of CUFOS produced what appeared to be solid new evidence of a UFO crash and cover up. The emergence of Robert Lazar, who even a mainstream journalist such as television reporter George Knapp concluded is telling the truth as he knows it possibly suggested a degree of substance to recurrent rumors about developments in Area 51 and S4. Even Moore's critics were puzzled by the extraordinary interest of intelligence operatives in ufologists and the UFO phenomenon, going back in time long before Bennewitz's interception of low-frequency signals at Kirtland and ahead to the present. Why go to all this trouble and expense, with so many persons over such a period of time, if there are no real UFO secrets to protect?
Moore says he is still working with the "birds," who are as active as ever. The birds tell him, he says, that disinformation is used not only against ufologists but even against those insiders like themselves who are privy to the cover-up. Those in charge are "going to great lengths to mislead their own people." At one point the birds were told that there is no substance to abduction reports, only to learn later, by accident, that a major high-level study had been done. "Even people with a need to know didn't know about it," he says. "The abduction mess caused a lot of trouble. There may have been an official admission of the cover-up by now if the abductions had not come into prominence in the 1980s."
As for the stories of ongoing contact between the U.S. government and extraterrestrial biological entities, he says there is, in his observation, a "pretty good possibility, better than three to one," that such a thing is happening. "But I don't think we can communicate with them. Perhaps we only intercept their communications. Or maybe they communicate with us."
He thinks he has found MJ-12. "It's not in a place anybody looked," he says. "Not an agency one would have expected. But when you think about it, it fits there" (Moore, 1990).
Doty, now a New Mexico State Police officer, was decertified as an AFOSI agent on July 15, 1986, for "misconduct" related to an incident (not concerned with UFOs) that occurred while he was stationed in West Germany. In August Doty requested a discharge from the Air Force and was sent to New Jersey to be separated from the service. But then, Doty says, the Senior Enlisted Advisor for AFOSI made a trip to the Military Personnel Center at Randolph AFB, Texas, and asked that Doty be reassigned to Kirtland, where his son lived. In September Col. Richard Law, Commander of AFOSI District 70, rescinded Doty's decertification and assigned him to Kirtland as a services career specialist (i.e., an Air Force recruiter). When he left the Air Force in October 1988, he was superintendent of the 1606 Services Squadron. Doty remains close to Moore and uncommunicative with nearly everyone else. All he will say is that one day a book will tell his side of the story and back it up with "Official Government Documents" (Doty, 1989).
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FILE NAME: EBE.DOC
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* Origin: ParaNet Information Service -- Leading UFO Research Network (1:310/9
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